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Summer Assignment

Page history last edited by Brendt Bly 10 years, 1 month ago

AP Chemistry Summer Assignment 2010.rtf

 

AP CHEMISTRY FIRST DAY TEST 

 

The first day, you will have a test covering two things: 1.) Memorizing the information listed later in this document.  2.) stoichiometry calculations from the summer homework (Ch. 3).  You must pass with at least 60% in order to remain enrolled in AP Chemistry.  For the test, you will need to solve problems WITHOUT looking at the following material:

 

 

  1. Rules for Naming Acids

  2. Rules for Naming Ionic Compounds

  3. Solubility Rules Group

  4. Group 1A, 2A, 5A, 6A and 7A Ions

  5. Variable Valences for Transition Metals

  6. Polyatomic Ions (including name, symbol and charge)  

  7. Metric prefixes and units

  8. Prefixes for naming covalent compounds

 

 

AP Chemistry is a difficult course.  It is not all about memorization; however, having these items memorized is essential for success in learning the concepts covered in the course.  

 

If this seems like too much work for the summer, please drop the course.  Advanced Placement Chemistry is a college level course.  You will need to be dedicated and work very hard if you are to be successful.

 

Example test

 

1. Name these chemicals:

a. HCl     b. H2SO4     c. HNO2     d. Ba(OH)2     e. SnO2     f. NO2

 

2. Write the formula of these chemicals:

a. Disulfur pentoxide

b. Tin (II) selenate

c. Iron (II) thiocyanate

d. Phosphoric acid

 

3. Is ammonium carbonate soluble or insoluble in water?

 

4. Convert 2 ng to grams.

 

5. DDT (C14H9Cl5), an insecticide harmful to fish, birds, and humans can be produced by reacting chlorobenzene (C6H5Cl) with chloral (C2HOCl3).  The unbalanced chemical equation is:

C6H5Cl + C2HOCl3 --> C14H9Cl5 + H2O

If 922 grams chlorobenzene react with 477 grams chloral, determine:

a. The limiting reactant.

b. The theoretical yield of DDT in grams.

c. The percent yield of DDT, if the actual yield of DDT is 198.0 grams.

 

Example Test Answer Key

 

 


 

Rules for Naming and Acid

 

When the name of the anion ends in –ide, the acid name begins with the prefix hydro-, the stem of the anion has the suffix –ic and it is followed by the word acid.            

             -ide     becomes hydro _____ic Acid

                                Cl-  is the Chloride ion    so   HCl = hydrochloric acid

 

When the anion name ends in –ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ous, followed by the word acid.          

            -ite becomes  ______ous Acid

                                ClO2-  is the Chlorite ion  so   HClO2  = Chlorous acid.

 

When the anion name ends in –ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ic, followed by the word acid.          

            -ate becomes  ______ic Acid

                                ClO3- is the Chlorate ion  so  HClO3 = Chloric acid. 

  

 

 


Rules for naming Ionic Compounds

 

  1. Balance Charges (charges should equal zero)

  2. Cation is always written first (in name and in formula)

  3. Change the ending of the anion to -ide

 


Solubility Rules  

 

 

  1. All compounds containing alkali metal cations and the ammonium ion are soluble.
  2. All compounds containing NO3-, ClO4-, ClO3-, and C2H3O2- anions are soluble.
  3. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble except those containing Ag+, Pb2+, or Hg2+.
  4. All sulfates are soluble except those containing Hg2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, Ca2+, or Ba2+.
  5. All hydroxides are insoluble except compounds of the alkali metals, Ca2+,  Sr2+,and Ba2+.
  6. All compounds containing PO43-, S2-, CO32-, and SO32- ions are insoluble except those that also contain alkali metals or NH4+.

 


 

Group 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 6A Ions

 

Group 1A 2A 4A 5A 6A
Ion formed +1 +2 -3 -2 -1
 
Li Be N O F
 
Na Mg   S Cl
 
K Ca  
 
Br
 
Rb Sr  
 
I
 
Cs Ba  
 
 
 
Fr Ra  
 
 

 


Variable Valences For Transition Metals

 

 

Name
Symbol
Charge
Stock Name
Chromium
Cr
+2

+3

Chromium (II)

Chromium (III)

Manganese
Mn
+2

+3

Manganese (II)

Manganese (III)

Iron
Fe
+2

+3

Iron (II)

Iron (III)

Cobalt
Co
+2

+3

Cobalt (II)

Cobalt (III)

Copper
Cu
+1

+2

Copper (I)

Copper (II)

Lead
Pb
+2

+4

Lead (II)

Lead (IV)

Mercury
Hg
+1

+2

Mercury (I)

Mercury (II)

Tin
Sn
+2

+4

Tin (II)

Tin (IV)

Gold
Au
+1

+3

Gold (I)

Gold (III)

Silver
Ag
+1

+2(rarely)

Silver

Silver (II)

Bismuth
Bi
+3

+5

Bismuth (III)

Bismuth (V)

Antimony
Sb
+3

+5

Antimony (III)

Antimony (V)

Cadmium
Cd
+2
Cadmium
Zinc
Zn
+2
Zinc

 

Return to Top   

 

Polyatomic Ions

 

Name
Symbol
Charge
ammonium
NH4
+1
acetate
C2H3O2
-1
bromate
BrO3
-1
chlorate
ClO3
-1
chlorite
ClO2
-1
cyanide
CN
-1
dihydrogen phosphate
H2PO4
-1
hypochlorite
ClO
-1
hydrogencarbonate(bicarbonate)
HCO3
-1
hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate)
HSO4
-1
hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite)
HSO3
-1
hydroxide
OH
-1
iodate
IO3
-1
nitrate
NO3
-1
nitrite
NO2
-1
perchlorate
ClO4
-1
permanganate
MnO4
-1
thiocyanate
SCN
-1
carbonate
CO3
-2
chromate
CrO4
-2
dichromate
Cr2O7
-2
oxalate
C2O4
-2
selenate
SeO4
-2
silicate
SiO3
-2
sulfate
SO4
-2
sulfite
SO3
-2
phosphate
PO4
-3
phosphite
PO3
-3
*The above charts taken from: Marcan, Susan P.  "Advanced Placement Chemistry."  Burlingame High School home page.  Online.  May 7, 2010.

 

Metric prefixes

prefix

abbreviation

meaning

power of ten

mega

M

1,000,000

106

kilo

k

1,000

103

deci

d

0.1

10-1

centi

c

0.01

10-2

milli

m

0.001

10-3

micro

μ

0.000 0001

10–6

nano

n

0.000 000 001

10–9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metric Units

Base unit

abbreviation

quantity measured

meter

m

length

liter

L

volume

gram

g

mass

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Prefixes for naming covalent compounds

 

Number of atoms Prefix
1 mono
2 di
3 tri
4 tetra
5 penta
6 hexa
7 hepta
8 octa

 

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